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MYMOLOGT OF LOCAL SAVES.                                       351
It must, however, he bome in mind that tie application of this rule is
restricted exclusively to local names of ancient date. Thus the name of the
village Sanket is really identical with the Sanskrit word sanketj meaning ran
assignation' or c rendezvous ;' the place which lies half-way between Barsana
and Nandganw, the respective homes of Badha and Krishna, having been so
called by the Gosains of the 16th century with the special object of localizing
the legend. Similarly, Pisaya with its beautiful forest of kadamb trees,, to
which the author of the Vraja-bhakti-vilasa gives the Sanskrit title of Pipasa-
vana, may really bear a name identical with the Hindi word pisaya, r thirsty,9 if
the name was first assigned to the spot by the Goknl Gosains as a foundation
for a story of Radha's bringing a draught of water for the relief of her
exhausted lover. But this is questionable, since it appears that there is a place
with the same name, but without any similar legend, in the Aligarh district;
both are therefore most probably far anterior to the 16th century and
susceptible of some entirely different explanation. The Aligarh Pisaya is,
I find, described as having the largest jungle or grazing ground In that district;
and this suggests that the word may very well be a corruption of tile Sanskrit
pasavya, 'fit for cattle/
In all these and similar cases it is imposible to arrive at sound conclu-
sions without a large amount of local knowledge ; while the absurdity of the
explanations advanced by the local Pandits demonstrates the equal necessity
for acquaintance with at least the rudimentary laws of philological science.
Scholastic speculations made without reference to physical features or to the
facts of village history are always liable to summary disproof ; and no one with
any respect for his own reputation should think of pronouncing off-hand upon
the derivation of the name of any place regarding the circumstances of which
he has not very definite information. For example, as the village Jati-pura
is on the border of the Jat state of Bharat-pnr, what could be more plausible
than to say that it is so called as being a Jut colony : but, a^ a fact, it lias
always been inhabited by Brahmans, and its founder was the VallabhacMrya
Gosain, Bitthal-nath, who was popularly known by the name Jatiji. Similarly,
while the Naugama in the Chhata pargana really connotes the meaning which
the form of the word most obviously suggests, 5.3 new town, the Naug&mo.
near the city of llathnru stands for an original ndga-grdma, and commemo-
rates its founder, !Naga. As a parallel example in English topography take Hie
town of Bridge-water ; the latter member of the compound referring BO! to
any stream, as would naturally be supposed, but to the Nonnan chief Walter,
who built his castle there. Again, Lodhaoli (In accordance with the principles